Candesartan Medication: Dosage, Indication, and Warning

drug

Candesartan what medicine? Have you ever heard of Candesartan’s drug name? Do you know what Candesartan medicine is? If someone is suffering from high blood pressure, the doctor may prescribe Candesartan medication to lower blood pressure. So it has been answered that Candesartan does not benefit? Candesartan drug is a drug used to treat hypertensive patients. Candesartan drug is a drug that is also used in patients with heart disease. Besides that, Candesartan’s benefit is to protect the kidneys from damage caused by diabetes. Candesartan composition is Canderin 8 mg.

If someone wants to consume Candesartan, he must follow the rules given by the doctor when starting treatment. The doctor will give the Candesartan dose according to the patient’s health condition. From the information above, you already know what benefits, functions, and Candesartan drugs are. If you want to know more about Candesartan’s composition, Candesartan’s benefits, methods of use and side effects of Candesartan, you can read more about the information below.

Name : Candesartan
Trade Name : Atacand, Canderin
Preparations : 8 mg tablet and 16 mg tablet
Class : ARB
Other ARB groups : Atacand, Avapro, Azilsartan, Benicar, Candesartan, Cozaar, Entresto, Eprosartan, Irbesartan, Losartan, Micardis, Olmesartan, Sacubitril / Valsartan, Telmisartan, Valsartan

Candesartan’s dose

For patients with high blood pressure, the required Candesartan dose is:

  • 16 mg orally (PO, taken) every day, titrate to 8-32 mg every day PO OR is divided every 12 hours

For patients with congestive heart disease (CHF) (NYHA class II-IV & ejection fraction <40%)

  • Initially 4 mg PO every day; Double dose doses every 2 weeks to 32 mg orally every day

Kidney disorders:

  • No Candesartan dose adjustment is needed for patients with mild renal impairment
  • Start therapy at a lower Candesartan dose if moderate kidney damage.

In liver disorders:

  • Mild decrease: No dose adjustment
  • Moderate decline: Consider starting at a low dose
  • Weight reduction: Contraindications.

Side Effects of Candesartan Drug Use

Frequency unknown.

  • Peripheral edema
  • Dizzy
  • Hypertriglyceridemia
  • Hyperuricemia
  • Fatigue
  • Stomach ache
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Arthralgia
  • Back pain
  • Chest pain
  • Angina
  • Taquigrafia
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Palpitation
  • Albuminuria
  • Bronchitis
  • Cough
  • Pharyngitis
  • Disturbed digestion
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Rhinitis
  • Rash
  • Angioedema

Report after Candesartan’s sale:

  • Digestion: Abnormal liver function and hepatitis
  • Hematology: Neutropenia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis
  • Immunology: Angioedema
  • Metabolic disorders and nutritional disorders: Hyperkalemia, hyponatremia
  • Respiratory system disorders: Cough
  • Skin and complementary disorders: Pruritus, rash and urticaria
  • Rare reports of rhabdomyolysis have been reported with the use of ARBs

Hard Warning for Candesartan Drug Use!

Stop using Candesartan as soon as possible when pregnancy is detected; affects the renin-angiotensin oligohydramnios system, which can cause fetal injury and death

Candesartan’s contraindications:

  • Hypersensitivity
  • Severe liver disorders
  • Do not give it together with aliskiren in patients with diabetes.

Attention:

  • History of angioedema
  • Hypovolemia
  • Risk of hypotension, especially in hypovolemic / hyponatremic patients, administration of concurrent diuretics, dialysis, or during major surgery
  • Kidney damage can occur
  • Stop immediately with pregnancy (see hard warning)
  • Be careful in patients with congestive heart failure; may need to adjust the dose
  • Hyperkalemia can occur with kidney failure or drugs that increase potassium levels; monitor serum potassium levels regularly
  • Blockade of the dual angiotensin renin system with ARBs, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with an increased risk for changes in kidney function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy
  • Risk of anaphylactoid reactions and / or angioedema
  • Be careful of liver disorders, hypercholesterolemia, hypercalcaemia, parathyroid disease, renal insufficiency, systemic lupus erythematosus, anuria
  • Be careful in patients with aortic stenosis / mitral stenosis
  • Be careful in patients with unilateral / bilateral unstented artery stenosis
  • Babies <1 year old do not accept candesartan; because it can have an effect on the development of an immature kidney
  • Exposure to in-utero neonates (when in utero): If oliguria or hypotension occurs, exchange transfusion or dialysis may be needed to reverse hypotension and / or replace impaired kidney function

Candesartan Drug Use in Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Conditions

Safety for pregnancy: category D.

Stop use immediately when pregnancy is detected, during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, the drug can work directly on the body’s renin-angiotensin system, which causes fetal damage such as hypotension, neonatal skull formation hypoplasia, anuria, reversible or irreversible kidney failure, and death.

Types of drug categories for pregnancy:

  • Category A : Generally acceptable, has been through research in pregnant women, and shows no evidence of fetal damage
  • Category B : May be accepted by pregnant women, has been through research in experimental animals but there is no direct research evidence in humans.
  • Category C : Use carefully. Research in experimental animals shows risk and there is no direct research in humans
  • Category D : Used if there are no other drugs that can be used, and in life-threatening conditions
  • Category X : Don’t use it in pregnancy.
  • NA Category : No information.

In nursing mothers, drugs are not known to enter breast milk or not, not recommended for use.

Peritonitis – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

stomach

Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneal region, the tissue that lines the inside of the abdomen and supports most of the organs in the abdomen. The peritoneum is a thin layer of tissue that covers the inside of the stomach and most organs. Inflammation is usually the result of a fungal or bacterial infection caused by an abdominal injury, underlying medical condition, or treatment of a device, such as a dialysis catheter.

Peritonitis is a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention. Rapid intravenous antibiotics are needed to treat infections. Surgery is sometimes needed to remove infected tissue. Infection can spread and threaten if not treated immediately.

Causes of Peritonitis

What causes peritonitis? There are two types of peritonitis. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) or primary peritonitis is the result of an infection of fluid in your peritoneal cavity. Liver failure or kidney failure can cause this condition. People with conditions of peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure also experience an increased risk for SBP.

While secondary peritonitis is usually caused by an infection that spreads from the digestive tract.

The following conditions can cause peritonitis:

  • Abdominal injury or injury
  • Broken appendix
  • Gastric ulcer or wound
  • Perforated intestine
  • Diverticulitis, when the sac forms on the walls of the large intestine and becomes inflamed
  • Pancreatitis, is inflammation of the pancreas
  • Liver cirrhosis or other types of liver disease
  • Gallbladder infection, intestine, or blood flow
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease, which is an infection of the female reproductive organs
  • Crohn’s disease , a type of inflammatory bowel disease
  • Invasive medical procedures, including treatment for kidney failure, surgery, or use of a feeding tube

Symptoms of peritonitis

What are the symptoms of peritonitis? Symptoms vary depending on the underlying cause of infection. Symptoms that often occur in peritonitis include:

  • Pain in the stomach
  • Pain in the abdomen is more intense with movement or touch
  • Flatulence or distension
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation or inability to fart
  • Minimum urine output (small urine )
  • Anorexia , or loss of appetite
  • Excessive thirst
  • Fatigue
  • Fever and chills.

If you are in the condition of peritoneal dialysis, dialysis fluid may be blurry or have white spots or lumps in it. You can also see redness or pain around the catheter.

Diagnosis of Peritonitis

If you have symptoms of peritonitis, seek medical attention as soon as possible. Delaying the treatment of peritonitis can be life threatening. The doctor will ask about medical history and carry out a complete physical examination. This will include touching or pressing on the abdomen, which may cause some discomfort.

There are other tests to help diagnose peritonitis, including:

A blood test, called a complete blood count (CBC) or a complete blood count , can measure your white blood cell count. A high white blood cell count usually indicates inflammation or infection. Blood culture can help identify bacteria that cause infection or inflammation.

If you have a buildup of fluid in your stomach, your doctor can use a needle to take some liquid and send it to the laboratory for fluid analysis. Liquid culture can also help identify bacteria. Imaging tests, such as CT scans and X-rays, can show perforations or holes in a person’s peritoneum. If you are on dialysis, your doctor may diagnose you based on the condition of a cloudy dialysis fluid.

Treating Peritonitis

What is the treatment of peritonitis? The first step in treating peritonitis is determining the underlying cause. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to fight infections and medications for pain. If the stomach has been infected, an abscess (collection of pus), or inflammation, the patient needs surgery to remove the infected tissue.

If you are on dialysis (separating substances in solution) and experiencing peritonitis, you should wait until the infection is clean to receive dialysis again. If the infection continues, you may need to switch to other types of dialysis (other than peritoneal dialysis).

Complications of Peritonitis

If not treated immediately, the infection can enter your bloodstream, causing shock and damage to other organs. This can be fatal.

Potential complications of primary peritonitis include:

  • Encephalopathy, is the loss of brain function that occurs when the liver can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood
  • Hepatorenal syndrome, which is progressive kidney failure due to liver failure
  • Sepsis , is a severe reaction that occurs when blood flow becomes overwhelmed by bacteria.

Complications of secondary peritonitis include:

  • Intra-abdominal abscess, is a collection of pus
  • Gangrenous intestine, is a dead intestinal tissue
  • Intraperitoneal adhesion, is a band of fibrous tissue attached to the abdominal organs and can cause intestinal obstruction
  • Septic shock, which is characterized by very low blood pressure.

Prevent Peritonitis

How to prevent peritonitis? For certain people with cirrhosis and ascites, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to prevent peritonitis.

Although peritonitis can be a complication of peritoneal dialysis, it is far less common than it used to be because of improved technology and self-care techniques taught during initial training.

If you receive peritoneal dialysis, you can reduce the risk of peritonitis by following these tips:

  • Carefully wash your hands, including objects between your fingers and under your fingernails, before touching the catheter
  • Wear a mouth or nose mask
  • Observe the correct sterile exchange technique
  • Apply antibiotic cream to the area outside the catheter every day.

Report immediately the possibility of contamination of dialysis fluid or catheter into your peritoneal dialysis nurse. In many cases, one dose of antibiotics can prevent contamination from becoming an infection.

Trichomoniasis – Causes and Symptoms

women

Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease. Caused by infection from the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, usually found in the vagina and urethral tissue. Most infected people don’t realize they have been infected. Although this condition is most common in women, trichomoniasis infection in men can also occur (and often have no symptoms).

Causes of Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis is caused by the bacterium Trichomonas vaginalis , the motile flaky protozoa.

  • About 174 million people worldwide are infected with this parasite every year, making it the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. In the United States, an estimated 3.7 million people are infected. Only about 30 percent of these people will have symptoms
  • Trichomonad’s average size is 15 mm (not visible to the naked eye)
  • Parasitic reproduction occurs every 8-12 hours
  • Trichomonas vaginalis was isolated in 14 percent to 60 percent of male partners of infected women and 67 percent to 100 percent of female partners of infected men. It is not clear why women are more often infected than men. One possibility is that prostate fluid contains zinc and other substances that can be harmful to the trichomonad.

Trichomoniasis symptoms

About 70 percent of infected people do not show any symptoms. If people have symptoms, they can experience mild to severe severity. Symptoms develop from 5 to 28 days after infection, but some people can experience symptoms even appearing at a time. Symptoms can improve or even disappear and then return to some people. If left untreated, the infection can last for months to years. The following are typical symptoms in those who experience trichomoniasis symptoms:

Symptoms of trichomoniasis in women:

  • The smell of vaginal odor, itching, and usually foaming
  • The vagina is itchy
  • The liquid from the vagina comes out yellow or greenish gray
  • Pain when urinating can occur

Symptoms of trichomoniasis in men:

  • Fluid comes out of the urethra
  • Pain when urinating
  • Pain and swelling in the scrotum (from epididymitis).

If you feel itchy in the vagina or urethra with fluid discharge or burning sensation while urinating, you should immediately see a doctor.

Trichomoniasis can be easily diagnosed and treated by a doctor.

Trichomoniasis diagnosis

The diagnosis is made by directly observing trichomonas in a sample of vaginal or urethral fluid through a microscope (too small to be seen with the naked eye).

  • Trichomonad is pear-shaped and has several flagella (whip tail) at one end
  • These laboratory tests are usually ordered only if the doctor suspects trichomoniasis
  • In some cases, the doctor may have to send a sample to the laboratory, and the results are not immediately obtained
  • The doctor will collect specimens during pelvic examination in women.
    • The doctor inserts the speculum into the vagina and then uses a cotton-tipped applicator to collect samples
    • The sample is then placed on a microscope slide for inspection
    • Trichomonad is rarely seen during urine tests
  • Diagnosis of trichomoniasis usually encourages the search for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis, HIV, gonorrhea, or chlamydia

Trichomoniasis treatment usually uses antibiotics.

Trichomoniasis independent handling

The treatment of choice is antibiotics prescribed by doctors. In addition to antibiotics, there are several alternative treatment therapies. This therapy has not proven useful, and there is no rigorous scientific evidence that supports its use. Home therapy should not be used as a substitute for proper doctor visits and antibiotics, because this allows the spread of conditions and also other dangerous sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis, HIV, gonorrhea, or chlamydia.

Some people feel that douching or rinsing once a day while lying in a warm bath can help, but this is not a substitute for antibiotic treatment. To increase the activity of killing parasites, you can add lemon juice to one of the following douching :

  • Vinegar douche – 1 teaspoon of vinegar in 1 liter of warm water
  • Yogurt douche or Lactobacillus acidophilus solution – half a teaspoon into one cup of water

Aromatherapy: Bergamot oil (c itrus aurantium var bergamia ) can help dry vaginal discharge. This can be used in douching or added to water for bathing.

The drug of choice is metronidazole ( Flagyl ), except in the first trimester of pregnancy, when clotrimazole ( Mycelex Troche ) is used topically. It is important not to drink alcohol when taking this drug (this combination can cause stomach ache and vomiting).

Metronidazole ( Flagyl )

  • Large single doses are as effective as long-term treatment, but increase the risk of side effects such as nausea and vomiting
  • Pills taken twice a day for 7 days are an alternative

Clotrimazole (Gyne-Lotrimin, Mycelex-7) if pregnant and experience symptoms

  • The drug is inserted into the vagina at night for 14 days
  • This will reduce symptoms, but the cure rate is only 20 percent

Sexual partner

  • Because infected male partners often do not have any symptoms, they do not seek medical care. It is important that sexual partners are evaluated and treated. If not, the person may be re-infected
  • Male partners are treated with one large dose of metronidazole or can be treated for 7 days
  • Your doctor may not always write additional prescriptions for an infected individual partner without evaluating him or her first

Prevention of Trichomoniasis

Because trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease, abstinence is the only way to truly avoid this disease. Safe sex practices and maintaining the cleanliness of the genitals can also help prevent trichomonas infection.

  • Wear condoms (this reduces, but does not completely eliminate the possibility of contracting a trichomonas infection)
  • Genital washing before and after intercourse
  • Don’t share swimsuits or towels. (Trichomonads last up to 45 minutes outside the body)
  • Take a shower immediately after swimming in the public swimming pool

Trichomoniasis prognosis

Trichomoniasis is not very serious, but contagious. If left untreated, this virus can infect tissue along the urinary tract and reproductive system. Trichomoniasis can cause preterm labor if left untreated during pregnancy. Trichomonas infection can also cause inflammation and irritation in the genital area which makes it easier to transmit. About 20% of people treated have recurrent infections.

Osteoarthritis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

knee

Osteoarthritis is a joint disease caused by a decrease in joint function. Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. Osteoarthritis occurs due to thinning of pads on the joints, causing pain, stiffness and swelling.

Osteoarthritis occurs when cartilage protection fluid at the ends of your bones gets less and less from year to year. Although osteoarthritis can damage various joints in the body, this disease often attacks the joints in the knees, hands, pelvis, and spine.

Osteoarthritis often worsens over time. if you stay active, maintain weight, and follow a healthy lifestyle, then the progression of this disease can be inhibited and will improve joint function and pain can be reduced.

Symptoms of Osteoarthritis

Symptoms of osteoarthritis generally develop slowly and get worse with time. The severity of symptoms and the location of the attack can vary from person to person. Signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis include:

  • The joint feels pain when moved.
  • The joint feels swollen and loose when you try to press it.
  • There is joint stiffness when you wake up in the morning or after the joints have not been moved for some time.
  • It feels broken or not flexible when using joints.
  • The presence of spurs on the bone. It is an additional bone growth on the tip, feels hard when pressed, and can affect the affected joint.

Causes of Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis occurs when cartilage (cartilage) which is a bearing at the end of the bone gradually decreases in quality. Cartilage is soft and slippery tissue that softens joint movements. In osteoarthritis, the smooth surface of the cartilage becomes rough. Finally, when the cartilage becomes rough and eroded, then the bones with bone will then rub together.

The following are conditions that increase the risk of developing osteoarthritis.

  • Old age . The risk of osteoarthritis increases with age
  • Sex . Women are more likely to experience osteoarthritis, although the reason is unclear.
  • Excessive weight will cause osteoarthritis. The joint will carry heavier weights, such as joints on the knee and pelvis. In addition, fat tissue will produce certain proteins that damage and make inflammation in the joints.
  • Joint injury . Joint trauma such as an accident or sports injury can increase the risk of osteoarthritis.
  • Some people inherit the tendency of osteoarthritis due to a family history of this disease.
  • Bone deformity . Some people are born with joint or cartilage malformations, which increases the risk of osteoarthritis.
  • Other diseases . Having diabetes or rheumatism like gout and rheumatoid arthritis can increase the risk of osteoarthritis.

Diagnosis of Osteoarthritis

During a physical exam, the doctor will properly examine the affected joint, check for swelling, redness, pain, and range of motion of the joint. The doctor will also recommend X-ray and MRI examinations.

  • On X-ray examination, the cartilage cannot be seen, but cartilage loss will appear as a shortening of the space between the bones in the joint. X-rays will also show if there is additional hard bone growth such as spurs around the joint. Some people can have evidence of osteoarthritis before the onset of symptoms with X-ray examination.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an examination that uses radio waves and magnetic waves to produce detailed images of bones and soft tissues, including cartilages. MRI is not often needed to diagnose osteoarthritis but can help provide information for complex or difficult cases.

Laboratory Check

  • Blood test . Blood tests can help find other causes of joint pain, such as joint pain due to rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Analysis of joint fluid . Doctors can do this by using needles to take joint fluid from the affected joint. Examination of joint fluid can determine if there is inflammation there and whether joint pain is caused by gout or from infection.

Osteoarthritis Complications

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that worsens over time. Joint pain and joint stiffness will worsen and it will feel more difficult to carry out daily activities. Some people can’t work too long. When joint pain is too heavy, the doctor will recommend joint replacement surgery.

Osteoarthritis Therapy and Medication

Until now, there is no effective cure for osteoarthritis, but the right lifestyle can help reduce pain and maintain joint motion. Symptoms of osteoarthritis can be alleviated with the following treatments:

  • Acetaminophen can relieve pain, but does not reduce inflammation (inflammation). This drug shows effectiveness in osteoarthritis with mild to moderate pain. An excessive dose of acetaminophen can cause liver damage, so consult a doctor to get this recipe.
  • NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) . NSAIDs can relieve pain and can also reduce inflammation. NSAIDs that can be consumed are ibuprofen, naproxen, or a stronger NSAID that can be prescribed by a doctor. NSAIDs can cause stomach pain, ear problems, cardiovascular problems, bleeding problems, and kidney and liver damage. These drugs should not be used in people over the age of 65 years and in people with gastritis because of the risk of liver bleeding.

Although osteoarthritis cannot be prevented, sufferers can minimize the potential for experiencing more severe conditions or complications that can cause paralysis by doing several things, such as: maintaining ideal body weight, regular exercise to strengthen muscles and joints.

Glimepiride Medication: Dosage, Indications, & Contraindications

medication

Many drugs are usually prescribed by doctors for patients with diabetes mellitus or type two diabetes, one of which is the drug Glimepiride. What drug is Glimeperide? The drug Glimepiride is a drug for controlling high blood sugar levels for people with type two diabetes. The drug Glimepiride is a drug that is given for the treatment of patients suffering from diabetes. Then, did you know about the composition of Glimepiride, the benefits of Glimepiride, the function of Glimepiride, and the dose of Glimepiride?

The benefits of Glimepiride are to encourage the pancreas to produce and use insulin in the body more efficiently. While the function of Glimepiride is to prevent kidney failure, heart attack, diabetic retinopathy or stroke which is a complication of diabetes. The composition of Glimepiride is in each tablet containing Glimepiride.

Once you know what drug Glimepiride is, you should find out more information about the dose of Glimepiride, an indication of the drug Glimepiride, and the contraindications to the drug Glimepiride. Let’s see more information about the Glimepiride drug below.

Name : Glimepiride
Group : Antidiabetic, Sulfonilurea
Trade name : Amaryl

Dose of Glimepiride and Indications for Adults

For type 2 diabetes mellitus

Initial dose: 1 – 2 mg PO every morning after breakfast or when eating first; dosage can be increased by 1 – 2 mg every 1 – 2 weeks; do not exceed 8 mg / day

If you want to replace oral diabetes mellitus medications:
Observe the patient with caution in 1 – 2 weeks when replacing long-half-time sulfonylurea to glimepiride, because the effects of hypoglycemia can overlap and endanger the patient

Consideration of the dose of Glimepiride
Use it as monotherapy (single therapy), or if the glycemic response to glimepirid medication is still lacking when the maximum dose has been given, use insulin or metforin

Modification of Glimepiride dosage:
If there is renal impairment: 1 mg orally per day, changes in dosage are based on fasting sugar levels
If there is a liver disorder: there is no study, it is not recommended for severe liver disorders, start therapy at a dose of 1 mg orally per day

Dosage of Glimepiride and Indications for Geriatrics

The incidence of prolonged hypoglycemia with the use of glimepiride has been reported; conservative dose titration, watch for symptoms of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia
For type 2: 1 mg diabetes mellitus orally every day; dose titration at intervals every week to prevent hypoglycemia

Side Effects The use of Glimepiride Medication is:

Side effects of Glimeperide drug with a frequency of> 10%

  • Hypoglycemia (4-20%)

Side effects of Glimepiride drug with a frequency of 1-10%

  • Dizziness (1.7%)
  • Asthenia (1.6%)
  • Headache (1.5%)
  • Nausea (1.1%)

Side effects of Glimepiride drug with a frequency of <1%

  • Skin allergic reactions
  • Erythema
  • Morbiliformis or maculopapular eruption
  • Pruritus
  • Urticaria
  • Diarrhea
  • Gastrointestinal pain
  • Gag
  • Agranulocytosis
  • Anemia
  • Aplastic anemia
  • Leukopenia
  • Pancytopenia
  • Thrombocytopenia , hemolytic
  • Cholestasis
  • Increased liver enzyme levels
  • Hepatic porphyria reaction
  • Jaundice (rare)
  • Disulfiram-like reactions
  • Hyponatremia

Post Marketing Report on Glimepiride Medication

  • Serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, and Stevens Johnson Syndrome
  • Hemolytic anemia in patients with and without G6PD deficiency
  • Liver disorders (for example, cholestasis, jaundice) and hepatitis , which can progress to liver failure
  • Porphyria cutanea tarda, photosensitivity reactions and allergic vasculitis
  • Leukopenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, and pancytopenia
  • Thrombocytopenia (including severe cases with platelet counts <10,000 / MCL) and thrombocytopenic purpura
  • Hepatic porphyria reaction and disulfiram-like reaction
  • Hyponatremia and SIADH, most commonly in patients given other drugs or medical conditions known to cause hyponatremia or an increase in antidiuretic hormone release

Contraindications to the use of the drug Glimepiride

  • The presence of hypersensitivity; sulfa allergy
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (with or without coma)
  • Gestational gestational diabetes mellitus

Attention

  • Patients at risk of severe hypoglycemia: Elderly, physically weak, or malnourished; or the presence of adrenal insufficiency or pituitary insufficiency; patients with physical stress due to infection, fever, trauma, or surgery
  • If the patient is exposed to physical stress, it may be necessary to stop glimepiride and start insulin
  • Use caution with liver / kidney damage
  • Pregnancy, breastfeeding
  • Increased risk of cardiovascular mortality
  • People who are allergic to other sulfonamide derivatives can develop an allergic reaction to glimepiride
  • Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in patients with autonomic neuropathy
  • Hemolytic anemia can occur with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) when treated with sulfonylurea agents
  • Fluid retention, which can worsen or cause heart failure, can occur
  • The combination used with insulin and used in patients with congenital heart failure NYHA class I and II can increase the risk of other cardiovascular effects

Use of Glimepiride Medication in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Conditions

Safety for pregnancy: Category C.

Types of drug categories for pregnancy:

  • Category A : Generally acceptable, has been through research in pregnant women, and shows no evidence of fetal damage
  • Category B : May be accepted by pregnant women, has been through research in experimental animals but there is no direct research evidence in humans.
  • Category C : Use carefully. Research in experimental animals shows risk and there is no direct research in humans
  • Category D : Used if there are no other drugs that can be used, and in life-threatening conditions.
  • Category X : Don’t use it in pregnancy.
  • NA Category : No information

It is not recommended for breastfeeding mothers because there is no further adequate data on whether or not the drug enters breast milk.